Smart City Technology is based on The Internet of Things (IoT), the idea of connecting traditionally offline objects into the World Wide Web to communicate, monitor or automate specific functions of that device. A great example of the IoT in action are smart home locks. These locks grant or deny access to a door, but they also connect to a WiFi network and can be locked or unlocked (hands free) anywhere in the world by the smartphone or computer tethered to that specific device.
This is the idea at the core of Smart City Technology, as it uses information and communication to enhance the quality and performance of urban services and increases the quality of living for citizens. There are two distinct conversations in this field of how to best develop this idea. The first is to define what aspects of the urban landscape will benefit from the connected world of IoT. The second is how to connect this technology.
The connection really does come down to two options, Star Networks vs Mesh Networks.